Inevitably when dealing with a complex subject, crop protection includes terms that may be unfamiliar and abbreviations that can be confusing at first glance. At ENDURE we try and explain these terms as we go along. Inevitably, though, sometimes you may find yourself puzzled by a word or acronym. That's where our A-Z guide can help:
Association de Coordination Technique Agricole (extension service), France
Agroscope Swiss Federal Research Station, Switzerland
University of Aarhus, Denmark
Controlling plants, diseases and animal pests using their natural enemies or, for example, inhibiting the reproduction of pests using methods that result in the laying of infertile eggs.
Consultative Group on International Agicultural Research. See www.cgiar.org for more details. You may come across the term CGIAR SP-IPM, which is shorthand for CGIAR's System-wide Programme on Integrated Pest Management.
Centre de coopération internationale en recherche pour le développement (Centre for Agricultural Research for Developing Countries)
Cisgenesis is the genetic modification of a recipient plant with a natural gene from a crossable (in other words sexually compatible) plant. Besides the technique of inserting the desired gene, it does not contain antibiotic resistance marker genes or strong promotors originating from unrelated organisms.
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Italy
Crop Protection Network (CPN)
Ensures links with scientists outside ENDURE, providing exchanges with permanent networks such as the IOBC and EWRS (see separate listings) and also ensures advances produced in other elevant EU projects are fully taken into account in ENDURE activities.
The growing of different crops in succession on the same land.
Using the resistance of a cultivar or variety to combat a pest. Improved cultivar resistance can be achieved using conventional breeding using crossing and selecting or using GMO techniques.
Danish Agricultural Advisory Service
Decision support systems
ENDURE's External Advisory Board
European Conference on Precision Agriculture
European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming
European Federation for Information Technology in Agriculture, Food and the Environment
ENDURE Information Centre
European Weed Research Society
GMO (genetically modified organism)
An organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. You may come across the terms transgenesis and cisgenesis (see above). These refer to the origin of the gene in question. Transgenesis uses a gene from an exogenous (unrelated) source while cisgenesis uses a gene from a crossable - sexually compatible - source.
International Biocontrol Manufacturers Association
ICM (Integrated Crop Management)
Two useful definitions found in the UK may help clarify ICM. The Sustainable Development White Paper defines ICM thus: To provide an adequate supply of food and other products in an efficient manner. To minimise consumption of non-renewable and other resources. To safeguard the quality of soil, water and the air and to preserve, where feasible, biodiversity in the landscape . The British Agrochemical Association says: ICM is a method of farming that balances the requirements of running a profitable business with responsibility and sensitivity to the environment. It includes practices that avoid waste, enhance energy efficiency and minimise pollution. ICM combines the best of modern technology with some basic principles of good farming practice and is a whole-farm, long-term strategy .
Plant Breeding and Acclimatisation Institute, Poland
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. See www.iita.org for details.
Insitut National de la Recherche Agronomique (French National Instiute for Agricultural Research)
International Organisation for Biological Control of Noxious Plants and Animals
Integrated pest management (for a full explanation, see ENDURE's definition of IPM).
IWM (Integrated Weed Management)
IWM is a broad term covering many methods that can be combined and applied in various ways to constitute an IWM strategy. Essentially, IWM implies that weed control is not solely based on herbicides, but takes advantage of other non-chemical measures to control weeds. IWM mainly serves two purposes: to reduce herbicide inputs and to supplement herbicides that are insufficiently effective.
Julius Kühn Institute, Germany
Life cycle assessment
Agricultural Economic Research Institute, the Netherlands
Maize-based cropping systems
National Agricultural Research System
Network of Excellence
A substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. Pests may include, among others, fungi (controlled with fungicides), weeds (controlled by herbicides) and insects (controlled by insecticides). Broad-spectrum pesticides are those that kill an array of species, while narrow-spectrum or selective pesticides kill only a small group of species.
Late blight in potatoes (also affects tomatoes), the devastating disease largely responsible for the Irish potato famines of the 1840s. See ENDURE's Potato Case Study for more details.
Applied Plant Research, the Netherlands
Plant Research International, the Netherlands
Rothamsted Research, United Kingdom
System case studies
Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento S. Anna, Italy
Szent Istvan University, Hungary
See GMO .
Universitat de Lleida, Spain
Winter crops-based cropping systems
Wageningen University, the Netherlands